In pregnancy, when a fertilized egg is attached outside the uterus is known as Ectopic pregnancy, which leads to complications in pregnancy. It is also known as tubal pregnancy, as the fertilized egg mostly attaches itself with fallopian tube. The fallopian tube is the one which connects ovaries to the womb. The fertilized egg cannot develop inside the fallopian tube as it didn’t have the potential for embryo growth.
The fertilized egg can also implant itself in cervix, ovary and abdomen. Less than 50% of women are facing difficult situations due to this type of pregnancy, according to American academy of Family physicians (AAFP). The untreated ectopic pregnancy can affect the health and also the life of a person.
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Causes of Ectopic Pregnancy
Some of the reasons for this type of pregnancy are:
- Smoking habit can cause ectopic pregnancy.
- According to the Research of Edinburgh, smokers have high PROKR1 protein level in fallopian tube which leads to the implantation of fertilized egg in it.
- The more women smoke the more they increase their risk in pregnancy.
- Infections in fallopian tube:
- The fallopian tube can be blocked if there are any infections in it.
- It may retard the egg’s movement due to the scar tissues which are caused of infections.
- The tube may have abnormal shape due to abnormal growth or birth defect.
- Previous Ectopic Pregnancy:
- Those women who already had ectopic pregnancy will have the high risk of having Ectopic pregnancy.
- Women who get pregnant in middle age or middle age (such as from 33 to 45) have the high chance to face ectopic pregnancy.
- Surgeries such as Caesarean, appendectomy, operations in fallopian tubes may be the reason for the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy.
- Endometriosis is also one of the reasons for ectopic pregnancy.
- It is the condition where the tissues grow outside the uterus instead of lines inside of the uterus.
- It causes scars in fallopian tubes.
- PID is known as Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases which causes infections in ovaries, fallopian tubes, etc.,
- It affects most part of the upper reproductive system.
- Ectopic pregnancy can happen when the PID is left untreated.
- Some of the pills such as contraception pills can be the reason for the ectopic pregnancy.
- STD is called as Sexually transmitted diseases which affects the pregnancy.
- Chlamydia infection which is a sexually transmitted disease may have the chance for this type of pregnancy.
- Ectopic pregnancy can also occur due to gonorrhoea, a sexually transmitted disease which is caused of bacterium due to Neisseria gonorrhoea.
- Multiple abortions, hormonal and genetically abnormalities can also cause the impact of ectopic pregnancy.
Ectopic Pregnancy Symptoms
There are many signs and symptoms to predict the ectopic pregnancy. But most of the women will not face these symptoms.
Some of them are:
- Abdominal pain
- Pelvic pain
- Vaginal bleeding
- Amenorrhea-lateness of menstrual cycle
- Internal bleeding
- Pain in the tip of the shoulder
- Also other normal pregnancy symptoms
Diagonosis of Ectopic Pregnancy
Usually, the pregnancy is found in six weeks after last menstruation with the help of Transvaginal ultrasound. But the embryo will not found in the uterus in case of ectopic pregnancy. The level of HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin), a pregnancy hormone will increase in this condition.
Ectopic Pregnancy Treatment
Ectopic pregnancy has to be treated with proper treatment in order to save the lives of human.
Some of the treatments are:
- Expectant Management:
- If there are only mild symptoms or no symptoms and all, the patient will be monitored closely.
- In this treatment, the problem will get cure readily.
- There will not be any side effects due to this treatment.
- But it may cause rupture in fallopian tubes.
- Blood tests will be carried out.
- A medicine called Methotrexate is appropriate to treat ectopic pregnancy in this method.
- It is used to cease the growth of pregnancy.
- It causes some side effects such as stomach pain, weakness and also cause rupture in fallopian tubes.
- Consumption of alcohol along with the intake of Methotrexate can cause damage in liver.
- In this method, laparoscopy, which is also known as Keyhole surgery is done by the surgeons to stop the development of pregnancy.
- According to the situation, either the pregnancy in fallopian tubes or the entire fallopian tubes will be removed.
- It may take some weeks for recovery.
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Some of the treatment of ectopic pregnancy and its risk factors can cause the risk to get pregnant another time.